Laboratory methods of organic chemistry
Results: Tabulate your results, compare with theoretical values from the literature, reference your sources to the literature see references section.
Make no notes of procedures, do not write any conclusions, but include all of your observations, reaction times, and analysis that was performed. Take the lab notebook to the balances to record masses. Record your data directly in the lab manual when it is observed, do not transfer from drafts to the notebook, this is considered poor practice. Have your lab partner initial and date your results when the experiment is complete. Additional details that will be useful for your lab report.
In addition to all of the sections outlined above for your lab notebook, it is also recommended that you include the following three sections to populate in preparation for your lab report:.
Discussion: The discussion is a more detailed account of each reaction you performed, color changes and observations. Include explanations of your observations. This is how you show you understand what you did, it is not just a summary of your experiment. A poor explanation means a poor grade for this section. Graphs may be necessary for the experiment.
Each graph should be drawn on graph paper or generated electronically.
Label your axes with the quantity and unit. If possible, give error bars on each point. Always use a ruler to draw straight lines. Spectral Data: Attach or reference spectral data of compounds from the experiment and from the scientific literature. This list is not intended to be comprehensive, but it is a very good place to start!
Use ink. Work clearly and legibly. Show work. Never scribble out mistakes, strikeout errors with a single line and write the correct information next to your correction. All errors in a lab manual should be indicated but they should also remain legible. Here is an example of what not to do in your lab notebook:. Indicate the location of all emergency exits. Use a diagram if necessary. In the event of a fire, indicate the point of rendezvous for your group. What should I wear on my legs and feet in the lab during the summer months when it is very warm outside?
I broke a test tube, and I cut the end of my finger on the broken glass. I've bled through my glove but I don't think I'll need stitches. What should I do? Skip to main content back to top hat. Book a 1-on-1 Walkthrough.
Content Index. Safety and Introduction.
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Welcome to the Organic Chemistry Laboratory. Setting Up a Reflux Reaction. Performing Anhydrous Moisture Sensitive Reactions. Performing Reactions Under Inert Gas. Addition of Reagents to In-Progress Reactions. Purification Techniques. Performing Extractions. Recrystallization Techniques. Acquiring a Melting Point. Boiling Point Determination. Spectroscopy and Spectrometry. Infrared Spectroscopy, by Jennifer Farmer. Gas Chromatography Techniques.
Techniques of Polarimetry. Appendix: Using the Analytical Balance. Appendix: Using a pH meter. Appendix: Using a Top-Loading Balance. Appendix: Using Analytical Glassware. Appendix: Rotary Evaporation.rikonn.biz/wp-content/2020-08-09/scoprire-software-spia-cellulare.php
Organic Chemistry Laboratory | Stanford Libraries
Introduction to Safety in the Lab. Safety Training. Emergency Telephone Numbers. Rules of the Laboratory. Lab goggles must be worn in the lab at all times , even when you are finished working, others may be working around you. Exposed legs from shorts or skirts are not permitted. All skin below the arms must be covered by clothing such as an appropriate length lab coat.
Only closed-toed shoes are permitted: No sandals or open-toed shoes allowed. Shoes should be slip-resistant Long hair must be tied back and loose jewelry and sleeves should be secured where possible. Exposure to Chemicals. Lab Equipment and Glassware. Using a Lab Notebook.
How a Lab Notebook is Organized.
What to include:. Answers to Prelab Questions:. Calculation of Percent Yield:. Lab Notebook Checklist. Question 1. Question 2. Indicate the location s of the nearest eye-wash station and the nearest safety shower. Question 3. Indicate using a diagram the location of every fire extinguisher in the laboratory.
Question 4. What should you do if you wear contact lenses to the laboratory? A functional group is a molecular module, and the reactivity of that functional group is assumed, within limits, to be the same in a variety of molecules. Functional groups can have decisive influence on the chemical and physical properties of organic compounds. Molecules are classified on the basis of their functional groups.
Laboratory Techniques in Organic Chemistry
Alcohols, for example, all have the subunit C-O-H. All alcohols tend to be somewhat hydrophilic , usually form esters , and usually can be converted to the corresponding halides. Most functional groups feature heteroatoms atoms other than C and H. Organic compounds are classified according to functional groups, alcohols, carboxylic acids, amines, etc.
The aliphatic hydrocarbons are subdivided into three groups of homologous series according to their state of saturation :.