Mediterranean Urbanization 800-600 BC (Proceedings of the British Academy)

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The economic slump after the Wall Street crash decimated foreign trade and once again the old problems returned to Spain's internal politics and economy. Dissatisfaction spread throughout society, and when King Alfonso and the army, his main source of power, no longer backed him, Primo de Rivera resigned on 26 January He retired to Paris and died from fever and diabetes on 16 March.

Meanwhile, the anarchist CNT and the Communist Party PCE organised social protests and strikes against the difficult conditions suffered by the working class. National bankruptcy and massive unpopularity had left the king no option but to demand Primo de Rivera's resignation. Disgusted with the king's involvement in his dictatorship, the urban population voted for the republican parties in the municipal elections of April The king fled the country without abdicating and a republic was established. After the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic on 14 April, the year saw the burning of convents, churches and religious buildings by crowds rioting throughout Spain, an event known as la quema de conventos the burning of the convents.

The mayhem lasted overnight and all the next day. It suffered not only the partial or complete destruction of many buildings, but also the loss of priceless historical records, religious images, ancient paintings, and libraries. Among the many works burnt were religious sculptures, including two masterpieces of Spanish baroque art by the sculptor Pedro de Mena as well as images carved by Fernando Ortiz.

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According to the historian Antonio Garcia Sanchez, [53] the historical precedents of the burning of the convents may be found in the adoption of vehement anti-clerical positions by the workers' political parties prior to the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic. Spanish politics was polarized to the left and the right throughout the s. The left-wing favoured class struggle , land reform , autonomy to the regions and reduction in church and monarchist power.


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The first two governments of the Republic were center-left. Economic turmoil, substantial debt inherited from the Primo de Rivera regime, and fractious, rapidly changing governing coalitions led to serious political unrest. In , CEDA won the national elections; an armed uprising of workers in October was forcefully put down by the new government. This in turn energised political movements across the spectrum in Spain, including a revived anarchist movement and new reactionary and fascist groups, including the Falange and a revived Carlist movement.

The left united in the Popular Front and won the electoral vote in February , reversing the right-wing trend. The political violence of previous years started again. There were gunfights over strikes, landless laborers seized land, church officials were killed and churches burnt. On the other side, right wing militias such as the Falange and gunmen hired by employers assassinated left wing activists. The Republican democracy never developed the consensus or mutual trust between the various political groups that it needed to function peacefully.

The right wing of the country and high-ranking figures in the army began to plan a coup , [54] and as a result the country slid into civil war. The rebel coup was supported by a number of conservative groups including CEDA, the religious monarchist Carlists , and the Fascist Falange. On 17 July , General Francisco Franco led the colonial army from Morocco to attack the mainland, while another force from the north under General Sanjurjo moved south from Navarre. Military units were also mobilised elsewhere to take over government institutions. Franco's move was intended to seize power immediately, but successful resistance by Republicans around the country meant that Spain faced a prolonged civil war.

Soon much of the south and west was under the control of the Nationalists, whose regular Army of Africa was the most seasoned of all the forces. The Republicans managed to hold out in Madrid , despite a Nationalist assault in November The Nationalists began to further erode the Republican territory, starving Madrid and making inroads into the east. The north, including the Basque country fell in late and the Aragon front collapsed shortly afterwards. The Battle of the Ebro in July—November was the final desperate attempt by the Republicans to turn the tide. When this failed and Barcelona fell to the Nationalists in early , it was clear the war was over.

The remaining Republican fronts collapsed and Madrid fell in March The war, which cost between , and 1,, lives, ended with the destruction of the Republic and the accession of Francisco Franco as dictator of Spain. Franco amalgamated all the right wing parties into a reconstituted Falange and banned the left-wing and Republican parties and trade unions.

After the war, many thousands of Republicans were imprisoned and up to , were executed between and During Franco 's rule, Spain was officially neutral in World War II and remained largely economically and culturally isolated from the outside world. Under a right-wing military dictatorship, Spain saw its political parties banned, except for the official party, the Falange. The formation of labor unions and all dissident political activity was forbidden.

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During the s, Spain began imposing restrictions on Gibraltar, culminating in the closure of the border in It was not fully reopened until Spanish rule in Morocco ended in Though militarily victorious in the — Moroccan invasion of Spanish West Africa , Spain gradually relinquished its remaining African colonies. Spanish Guinea was granted independence as Equatorial Guinea in , while the Moroccan enclave of Ifni was ceded to Morocco in The latter years of Franco's rule saw some economic and political liberalization, known as the Spanish Miracle , including the birth of a tourism industry.

Spain began to catch up economically with its European neighbours. Franco ruled until his death on 20 November , when control was given to King Juan Carlos. The area was developed to meet the demands of international tourism in the s and has since been a popular destination for foreign tourists not only for its beaches but also for its local culture. The "Spanish miracle" fed itself on the rural exodus which created a new class of industrial workers. Some cities preserved their historic centers, but most were altered by often haphazard commercial and residential developments.

The same fate befell long stretches of scenic coastline as mass tourism exploded. The Faculty of Medicine was created after ratification of the decree. In , the Ministry of Public Works and Transport commissioned a study based on suggestions in the Intermodal Transport Plan, which had initially proposed four lines. The first two lines are still under construction as of The total traffic of goods imported or exported was 2,, metric tonnes in A commercial marina will also operate from Quay 1, catering to 24 super-yachts of up to 30 meters, and the Eastern Quay passenger terminal will be remodeled to improve pedestrian access and double existing capacity to , passengers a year.

The quays are connected by a system of internal roads and a network of internal and external railway lines. It is the international airport of Andalucia accounting for 85 percent of its international traffic and is the only one offering a wide variety of international destinations. It includes the construction of a new terminal and a new car park, as well as the extension of the airfield. It is held annually during a week in April. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Mainake Greek settlement. This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Spanish Wikipedia.

The beginnings of urbanization at Rome | University College London

The Celtic Encyclopedia. Universal Publishers. Geschichte der Karthager. Brill's New Pauly. Antiquity volumes. Retrieved 11 June Retrieved 18 March Cambridge University Press. Richard Stillwell; William L. The Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites.

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Gil J. Stein ed. Santa Fe N. Malaca Second printing, Ann Arbor: Princeton University Press. Visigothic Spain, — A History of Spain. Blackwell Publishing. Malaga The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Pub. Mediterranean Historical Review.

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In David Abulafia ed. An Islamic Port in the Compass of Genoa". Journal of Medieval History. Espacio, Tiempo y Forma.

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